Health Savings Accounts, or HSAs, were created by Congress to combat rising medical costs by providing an incentive for more consumers to pay "first-dollar" medical expenses. An HSA is an IRA-like account that is designed exclusively for covering medical expenses incurred by the HSA account beneficiary (the person who establishes the account) and his or her dependents. However, there are some differences.
HSAs can provide significant tax benefits to eligible individuals. Not only can HSAs provide tax benefits related to paying qualified medical expenses, they may also provide benefits similar to many tax-favored retirement plans. A summary of HSA tax advantages is shown below.
→ HSA contributions - by employer or employee - are excluded from income
→ HSA earnings are tax deferred.
→ If used for qualified medical expenses, HSA assets are never taxed.
→ Unused HSA assets may be used for retirement; however, they will be subject to a 10 percent penalty until the HSA account beneficiary turns age 65. If not used for medical expenses, they will be subject to income taxes.
→ Upon death, HSA assets become the property of a named death beneficiary, or of the HSA account beneficiary's estate. A spouse may treat the assets as his or her own HSA, while nonspouse death beneficiaries must treat such assets as ordinary taxable income.
In order for HSA assets to retain their tax-free status, they may only be withdrawn and used for certain expenses.
These expenses include
→ Actual medical expenses, including doctor visits, prescriptions, transportation to get medical care, and dental care,
→ Long-term care insurance,
→ Healthcare coverage when unemployed,
→ Certain continuation-of-benefit healthcare coverage, and
→ certain health insurance after age 65.
Non qualified uses of HSA assets are subject to taxation and a 10 percent penalty unless the HSA account beneficiary is age 65 or older, dies, or is disabled.
You are an eligible individual for any month if you:
→ Are covered under an HDHP on the first day of such month:
→ Are not also covered by any other health plan that is not an HDHP (with limited exceptions);
→ Are not enrolled for benefits under Medicare (generally not yet age 65): and
→ Are not to be claimed as a dependent on another person's tax return.
An HDHP is an insurance policy that meet, certain dollar limits as shown in the table below.
Sole proprietors and others who are self-employed can have an HSA, and are, in fact, often ideal candidates for an HSA. In such situations, the business owner is both employer and employee. HSAs are often advantageous for the self-employed because:
→ High-deductible health insurance plans generally have modest premium costs, and may be an effective cost-containment mechanism for the employer,
→ The employer is protected against potentially catastrophic healthcare expenses, and
→ The HSA may serve the dual purpose of providing for both medical and retirement expenses.
The Internal Revenue Service (IRS) announced that the 2011 annual contribution limits as well as the minimum deductible and maximum out-of-pocket limits for HSA-compatible health plans limits remains unchanged from 2010.
Health Savings Accounts
|Definition of High Deductible Health Plans - Deductibles/Out of Pocket Limits|
|Single Coverage - Minimum/Maximum|
|Family Coverage - Minimum/Maximum|
Health Savings Account Contribution Limits
Catch Up Provisions
|Those at age 55+ qualify for a catch up provision|
|View the IRS website for further details|
The total amount you or your employer may contribute to an HSA for any taxable year is dependent upon whether you have individual or family coverage under a high deductible health plan.
*HDHP and contribution limitations are revised each year to reflect cost-of-living increases.
In addition to the standard HSA contribution limits shown in the previous table, if you have attained age 55 before the close of a taxable year, you may also contribute an additional amount known as a "catch-up" contribution.
For calendar year 2012, the annual limitation on deductions under § 223(b)(2)(A) for an individual with self-only coverage under a high deductible health plan is $3,100, up $50 from $3,050 in 2011.
For calendar year 2012, the annual limitation on deductions under § 223(b)(2)(B) for an individual with family coverage under a high deductible health plan is $6,250. This is up from $6,150 for 2011 calendar year.
→ HSA holders must report all contributions and distributions on their individual income tax returns.
→ An employer contribution is reported on a business tax return, as well as on the W-2 form of any employee receiving an employer contribution.
→ All contributions and distributions from an HSA account are also reported by the custodian or trustee where the HSA is held.